Bacteriophage T4 Infection
JCVI-syn3A Minimal Cell
Insulin Release
HIV Vaccine
Caulobacter Polar Microdomain
HIV-Infected Cell
Collagen and Extracellular Matrix
Escherichia coli Bacterium
Myoglobin in a Whale Muscle Cell
Cellulose Synthase
Transfer RNA and Gag Protein
RecA and DNA
Casein Micelle and Fat Globule in Milk
Model of a Mycoplasma Cell
Phage-based COVID-19 Vaccine
Immunological Synapse
SARS-CoV-2 Fusion
Red Blood Cell Cytoskeleton
SARS-CoV-2 and Neutralizing Antibodies
Respiratory Droplet
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine
Coronavirus Life Cycle
Influenza Vaccine
Measles Virus Proteins
Lipid Droplets
Poliovirus Neutralization
Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses
Last Universal Common Ancestor
Zika Virus
Insulin Action
Ebola Virus
Mycoplasma mycoides
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VegF) Signaling
Biosites: Muscle
Biosites: Basement Membrane
Biosites: Red Blood Cell
Biosites: Nucleus
Biosites: Blood Plasma
Biosites: Cytoplasm
Escherichia coli
HIV in Blood Plasma

Molecular Landscapes by David S. Goodsell

Casein Micelle and Fat Globule in Milk, 2021

Acknowledgement: Illustration by David S. Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank. doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/goodsell-gallery-039

This illustration shows a cross section through a casein micelle (tan, lower center) and a fat globule (yellow, upper left) from cow's milk. The micelle includes many unstructured alpha and beta casein chains interacting with small calcium phosphate nanoclusters (white), and kappa casein chains extending from the surface. The fat globule is surrounded by a multi-layered membrane with many embedded proteins, filled with fat molecules (yellow) and a few carotene molecules (orange). Whey proteins are shown in darker shades around the micelle.

This illustration was presented as part of the Molecule of the Month on Casein Kinase.

Fat globule membrane
A. Adipophilin
B. Xanthine oxidase
C. Fatty-acid-binding protein
D. Mucin
E. Lactadherin
F. Butyrophilin
G. Proteose peptone
H. CD36

I. β-Lactoglobulin
J. α-Lactalbumin
K. Albumin
L. Immunoglobulin
M. Lactoferrin
N. Lactoperoxidase

Casein micelle
O. α/β-Caseins
P. Calcium phosphate nanocluster
Q. κ-Casein

Selected References
Roy D, Ye A, Moughan PJ, Singh H (2020) Composition, structure, and digestive dynamics of milk from different species--a review. Front. Nutrition 7, 577759.
de Kruif CG, Huppertz T, Urban VS, Petukhov AV (2012) Casein micelles and their internal structure. Adv. Colloid Interf. Sci. 171-172, 36-52.
Lopez C (2011) Milk fat globules enveloped by their biological membrane: unique colloidal assemblies with a specific composition and structure. Curr. Op. Colloid Interf. Sci. 16, 391-404.
McMahon DJ, Oommen BS (2008) Supramolecular structure of the casein micelle. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 1709-1721.
Madureira AR, Pereira CI, Gomes AMP, Pintado ME, Malcata FX (2007) Bovine whey proteins--overview on their main biological properties. Food Res. Internat. 40, 1197-1211.