Bacteriophage T4 Infection
JCVI-syn3A Minimal Cell
Insulin Release
HIV Vaccine
Caulobacter Polar Microdomain
HIV-Infected Cell
Collagen and Extracellular Matrix
Escherichia coli Bacterium
Myoglobin in a Whale Muscle Cell
Cellulose Synthase
Transfer RNA and Gag Protein
RecA and DNA
Casein Micelle and Fat Globule in Milk
Model of a Mycoplasma Cell
Phage-based COVID-19 Vaccine
Immunological Synapse
SARS-CoV-2 Fusion
Red Blood Cell Cytoskeleton
SARS-CoV-2 and Neutralizing Antibodies
Respiratory Droplet
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine
Coronavirus Life Cycle
Influenza Vaccine
Measles Virus Proteins
Lipid Droplets
Poliovirus Neutralization
Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses
Last Universal Common Ancestor
Zika Virus
Insulin Action
Ebola Virus
Mycoplasma mycoides
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VegF) Signaling
Biosites: Muscle
Biosites: Basement Membrane
Biosites: Red Blood Cell
Biosites: Nucleus
Biosites: Blood Plasma
Biosites: Cytoplasm
Escherichia coli
HIV in Blood Plasma

Molecular Landscapes by David S. Goodsell

Phage-based COVID-19 Vaccine, 2021

Acknowledgement: David S. Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank and Scripps Research. doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/goodsell-gallery-045

Genetically-engineered phage particles displaying a defined epitope of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can elicit a systemic immune response. Candidate epitopes may be assessed through various genetic and structural studies to determine feasibility as a universal epitope for protection against existing and emerging viral variants. In this artistic depiction, created in collaboration with Christopher Markosian and Daniela Staquicini, phage particles (pale blue) display multiple copies of the spike protein-derived C662–C671 epitope (pink), which elicit the generation of antibodies (yellow) immunoreactive against spike protein. SARS-CoV-2 is shown at bottom right in magenta and purple.

For more information, please see two publications:
1) Design and Proof of Concept for Targeted Phage-based COVID-19 Vaccination Strategies with a Streamlined Cold-free Supply Chain
(2021) PNAS 118: e2105739118 doi: 10.1073/pnas.2105739118
2) Genetic and Structural Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein for Universal Epitope Selection
(2022) Molecular Biology and Evolution 39: msac091 doi: 10.1093/molbev/msac091