Bacteriophage T4 Infection
JCVI-syn3A Minimal Cell
Insulin Release
HIV Vaccine
Caulobacter Polar Microdomain
HIV-Infected Cell
Collagen and Extracellular Matrix
Escherichia coli Bacterium
Myoglobin in a Whale Muscle Cell
Cellulose Synthase
Transfer RNA and Gag Protein
RecA and DNA
Casein Micelle and Fat Globule in Milk
Model of a Mycoplasma Cell
Phage-based COVID-19 Vaccine
Immunological Synapse
SARS-CoV-2 Fusion
Red Blood Cell Cytoskeleton
SARS-CoV-2 and Neutralizing Antibodies
Respiratory Droplet
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine
Coronavirus Life Cycle
Influenza Vaccine
Measles Virus Proteins
Lipid Droplets
Poliovirus Neutralization
Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses
Last Universal Common Ancestor
Zika Virus
Insulin Action
Ebola Virus
Mycoplasma mycoides
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VegF) Signaling
Biosites: Muscle
Biosites: Basement Membrane
Biosites: Red Blood Cell
Biosites: Nucleus
Biosites: Blood Plasma
Biosites: Cytoplasm
Escherichia coli
HIV in Blood Plasma

Molecular Landscapes by David S. Goodsell

SARS-CoV-2 Fusion, 2020

Acknowledgement: Illustration by David S. Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank; doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/goodsell-gallery-026

This painting depicts the fusion of SARS-CoV-2 (magenta) with an endosomal membrane (green), releasing the viral RNA genome into the cell cytoplasm (blue), where it is beginning to be translated by cellular ribosomes to create viral polyproteins. The painting includes speculative elements that are designed to highlight the process, most notably, multiple states of the viral spike protein are shown.

A. Pre-fusion state of the viral spike protein (6crz)
B. Viral spike protein S2 domain, after S1 is released.
C. Viral spike protein inserting into the endosomal membrane
D. Post-fusion state of the viral spike protein (6xra)
E. S1 domain of viral spike
F. Complex of viral M, E (5x29), ORF3a (6xdc) and ORF7a (6w37)
G. ACE2 (6m17)
H. LAMP (5gv0)
I. ABC transporter
J. V-ATPase (5vox)
K. Mucolipin (5wj5)
L. Viral nucleocapsid protein (6m3m, 6wzo)
M. Viral RNA genome
N. Ribosomal initiation complex
O. Translating ribosome
P. Nascent viral polyprotein

This painting was created as part of the show "New Ways of Living: Understanding the Science of COVID-19," in association with SciCommMake 2020.

Selected References
Ke, Z., et al. (2020) Structures and distributions of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins on intact virions. Nature
Yao, H., et al. (2020) Molecular architecture of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Cell 183, 730-738.
Zeng, W., et al. (2020) Biochemical characterization of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 527, 618-623.
Li, F. (2016) Structure, function, and evolution of coronavirus spike proteins. Annu. Rev. Virol. 3, 237-261.
Liu, D.X, et al. (2014) Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses. Antiviral Res. 109, 97-109.
Sonenberg, N. and Hinnebusch, A. G. (2009) Regulation of translation initiation in eukaryotes: mechanisms and biological targets. Cell 136, 731-745.