Molecule of the Month: Glucagon
Glucagon triggers the release of glucose into the blood, to power cells throughout the body
Dissecting a GPCR
Exploring the Structure
GLP-1 and Receptor (PDB entry 3iol)
The extracellular domain of the glucagon receptor has the job of finding glucagon. It binds to one end of the short hormone helix, leaving the other end free to insert into a deep pocket in the transmembrane domain, activating the receptor. The structure shown here (PDB entry 3iol ) shows the binding of GLP-1 to the extracellular domain of its receptor, which is quite similar to glucagon and its receptor. To explore this structure in more detail, click on the image for an interactive JSMol.
Topics for Further Discussion
- Several structures for isolated glucagon and modified forms of glucagon are available in the PDB, showing that it has a range of conformations in different environments. Try searching for "glucagon" to see a few of them.
- You can use the Protein Feature View to explore the different hormones created from proglucagon.
Related PDB-101 Resources
- Browse Cellular Signaling
- Browse Diabetes
- D. Bataille & S. Dalle (2014) The forgotten members of the glucagon family. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 106, 1-10.
- K. Hollenstein, C. de Graaf, A. Bortolato, M. W. Wang, F. H. Marshall & R. C. Stevens (2014) Insights into the structure of class B GPCRs. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 35, 12-22.
- 4l6r: F. Y. Siu, M. He, C. de Graaf, G. W. Han, D. Yang, Z. Zhang, C. Zhou, Q. Xu, D. Wacker, J. S. Joseph, W. Liu, J. Lau, V. Cherezov, V. Katritch, M. W. Wang & R. C. Stevens (2013) Structure of the human glucagon class B G-protein-coupled receptor. Nature 499, 444-449.
- 4ers: C. M. Koth, J. M. Murray, S. Mukund, A. Madjidi, A. Minn, H. J. Clark, T. Wong, V. Chiang, E. Luis, A. Estevez, J. Rondon, Y. Zhang, I. Hotzel & B. B. Allan (2012) Molecular basis for negative regulation of the glucagon receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 109, 14393-14398.
- 2l63: K. C. Venneti & C. M. Hewage (2011) Conformational and molecular interaction studies of glucagon-like peptide-2 with its N-terminal extracellular receptor domain. FEBS Letters 585, 346-352.
- 3iol: C. R. Underwood, P. Garibay, L. B. Knudsen, S. Hastrup, G. H. Peters, R. Rudolph & S. Reedtz-Runge (2010) Crystal structure of glucagon-like peptide-1 in complex with the extracellular domain of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 285, 723-730.
- 1p8j: S. Henrich, A. Cameron, G. P. Bourenkov, R. Kiefersauer, R. Huber, I. Lindberg, W. Bode & M. E. Than (2003) The crystal structure of the proprotein processing proteinase furin explains its stringent specificity. Nature Structural Biology 10, 520- 526.
- 1gcn: K. Sasaki, S. Dockerill, D. A. Adamiak, I. J. Tickle & T. Blundell (1975) X-ray analysis of glucagon and its relationship to receptor binding. Nature 257, 751-757.
April 2015, David Goodsellhttp://doi.org/10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2015_4