Molecule of the Month: Human Papillomavirus and Vaccines
The capsid protein of papillomavirus is used in vaccines that prevent cervical cancer.
A Tiny Danger
VLPs and Vaccines
Exploring the Structure
Papillomavirus binds to heparin molecules on the surface of the cells that it infects. Crystallographic structures of isolated L1 capsomeres have revealed that the heparin chains (on the left in green) are recognized by lysine-lined grooves on the surface of the virus (PDB entry 5w1o). Similar L1 capsomere structures with antibodies (on the right in blue) show that they can block this recognition, thus blocking attachment to the cell (PDB entry 5y9f). To compare these two structures, click on the image for an interactive JSmol.
Topics for Further Discussion
- You can search for “papillomavirus E7” to explore structures of the E7 oncogenic protein. Can you figure out why papillomavirus proteins E1-E8 are named with the letter "E" and the two capsid proteins are named with the letter "L"?
- Try searching for “capsid” in PDB-101 or the main RCSB site to see many ways that viruses build capsids.
- Click on this link to download and build a paper model of papillomavirus.
- World Health Organization position paper on human papillomavirus vaccines. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 12 May 2017, vol. 92, 19 (pp. 241-268).
- 6bt3: J Guan, SM Bywaters, SA Brendle, RE Ashley, AM Makhov, JF Conway, ND Christensen & S Hafenstein (2017) High-resolution structure analysis of antibody V5 and U4 conformational epitopes on human papillomavirus 16. Viruses 9, 374.
- 5y9f: Z Li, D Wang, Y Gu, S Song, M He, J Shi, X Liu, S Wei, J Li, H Yu, Q Zheng, X Yan, TS Baker, J Zhang, JS McLellan, S Li & N Xia (2017) Crystal structures of two immune complexes identify determinants for viral infectivity and type-specific neutralization of human papillomavirus. MBio 8, e00787-17
- 4xr8: D Martinez-Zapien, FX Ruiz, J Poirson, A Mitschler, J Ramirez, A Forster, A Cousido-Siah, M Masson, SV Pol, A Podjarny, G Trave & K Zanier (2016) Structure of the E6/E6AP/p53 complex required for HPV-mediated degradation of p53. Nature 529, 541-545.
- 3j6r: G Cardone, AL Moyer, N Cheng, CD Thompson, I Dvoretzky, DR Lowy, JT Schiller, AC Steven, CB Buck & BL Trus. (2014) Maturation of the human papillomavirus 16 capsid. MBio 5, e01104-14.
- 5w1o: J Dasgupta, M Bienkowska-Haba, ME Ortega, HD Patel, S Bodevin, D Spillmann, B Bishop, M Sapp & XS Chen (2011) Structural basis of oligosaccharide receptor recognition by human papillomavirus. Journal of Biological Chemistry 286, 2617-2624.
- I Suarez & G Trave (2008) Structural insights in multifunctional papillomavirus oncoproteins. Viruses 10, 37.
- DR Lowy & JT Schiller (2006) Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines. Journal of Clinical Investigation 116, 1167-1173.
May 2018, David Goodsellhttp://doi.org/10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2018_5