Molecule of the Month: Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4
Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 are used to treat type-2 diabetes
Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4)
Treating Type-2 Diabetes
Exploring the Structure
Inhibitors of DPP4
In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration approved the first of these DPP4 inhibitors, sitagliptin (PDB entry 1x70), which was quickly followed by many other anti-diabetic drugs collectively known as “gliptins.” All of these drugs mimic the end of the incretin hormones, blocking the active site of DPP4 so that it cannot inactivate the hormones. To explore six different gliptins and an analog of one of the DPP4 substrates, click on the image for an interactive JSmol.
Topics for Further Discussion
- Structures for several other hormones that are cleaved by DPP4 are available in the PDB, including peptide YY (2dez) and chemokine RANTES (1rtn). Take a look at these and find the dipeptide that is cleaved by DPP4.
- You can use the Protein Feature View of DPP4 to see the portions of the enzyme that are not included in the structure.
Related PDB-101 Resources
- Browse Diabetes
- Browse Cellular Signaling
- D. Rohrborn, N. Wronkowitz & J. Eckel (2015) DPP4 in diabetes. Frontiers in Immunology 6, article 386.
- 3w2t: M. Nabeno, F. Akahoshi, H. Kishida, I. Miyaguchi, Y. Tanaka, S. Ishii & T. Kadowaki (2013) A comparative study of the binding modes of recently launched dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors in the active site. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 434, 191-196.
- H. Zhong, X. Rao & S. Rajagopalan (2013) An emerging role of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) beyond glucose control: potential implications in cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis 226, 305-314.
- 3vjk: T. Yoshida, F. Akahoshi, H. Sakashita, H. Kitajima, M. Nakamura, S. Sonda, M. Takeuchi, Y. Tanaka, N. Ueda, S. Sekiguchi, T. Ishige, K. Shima, M. Nabeno, Y. Abe, J. Anabuki, A. Soejima, K. Yoshida, Y. Takashina, S. Ishii, S. Kiuchi, S. Fukuda, R. Tsutsumiuchi, K. Kosaka, T. Murozono, Y. Nakamaru, H. Utsumi, N. Masutomi, H. Kishida, I. Miyaguchi & Y. Hayashi (2012) Discovery and preclinical trials of teneligliptin (3-[(2S,4S)-4-[4-(3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl]pyrrolidin-2-ylcarbonyl]thiazolidine): a highly potent, selective, long-lasting and orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 20, 5705-5719.
- 3g0b: Z. Zhang, M. B. Wallace, J. Feng, J. A. Stafford, R. J. Skene, L. Shi, B. Lee, K. Aertgeerts, A. Jennings, R. Xu, D. B. Kassel, S. W. Kaldor, M. Navre, D. R. Webb & S. L. Gwaltney (2011) Design and synthesis of pyrimidinone and pyrimidinedione inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 54, 510-524.
- 3bjm: W. J. Metzler, J. Yanchunas, C. Weigelt, K. Kish, H. E. Klei, D. Zie, Y. Zhang, M. Corbett, J. K. Tamura, B. He, L. G. Hamann, M. S. Kirby & J. Marcinkeviciene (2008) Involvement of DPP-IV catalytic residues in enzyme-saxagliptin complex formation. Protein Science 17, 240-250.
- 2rgu: M. Eckhardt, E. Langkopf, M. Mark, M. Tadayyon, L. Thomas, H. Nar, W. Pfrengle, B. Guth, R. Lotz, P. Sieger, H. Fuchs & F. Himmelsbach (2007) 8-(3-(R)-aminopiperidin-1-yl)-7-but-2-ynyl-3-methyl-1-(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-ylmethyl)-3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione (BI 1356), a highly potent, selective, long-lasting, and orally bioavailable DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 50, 6450-6453.
- 2b4n: I. Alana, J. C. Parker, V. A. Gault, P. R. Flatt, F. P. O’Harte, J. P. Malthouse & C. M. Hewage (2006) NMR and alanine scan studies of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in water. Journal of Biological Chemistry 281, 16370-16376.
- 1x70: D. Kim, L. Wang, M. Beconi, G. J. Eiermann, M. H. Fisher, H. He, G. J. Hickey, J. E. Kowalchick, B. Leiting, K. Lyons, F. Marsilio, M. E. McCann, R. A. Patel, A. Petrov, G. Scapin, S. B. Patel, R. S. Roy, J. K. Wu, M. J. Wyvratt, B. B. Zhang, L. Zhu, N. A. Thornberry & A. E. Weber (2005) (2R)-4-oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine: a potent, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 48, 141-151.
- 1nu8: R. Thoma, B. Loeffler, M. Stihle, W. Huber, A. Ruf & M. Hennig (2003) Structural basis of proline-specific exopeptidase activity as observed in human dipeptidyl peptidase-IV. Structure 11, 947-959.
- 1d0r: X. Chang, D. Keller, S. Bjorn & J. J. Led (2001) Structure and folding of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide in trifluoroethanol studied by NMR. Magnetic Resonance Chemistry 39, 477-483.
- 1jrj: J. W. Neidigh, R. M. Fesinmeyer, K. S. Prickett & N. H. Andersen (2001) Exendin-4 and glucagon-like-peptide-1: NMR structural comparisons in the solution and micelle-associated states. Biochemistry 40, 13188-13200.
- 1eot: M. P. Crump, K. Rajarathnam, K. S. Kim, I. Clark-Lewis & B. D. Sykes (1998) Solution structure of eotaxin, a chemokine that selectively recruits eosinophils in allergic inflammation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273, 22471-22479.
- 1ron: S. A. Monks, G. Karagianis, G. J. Howlett & R. S. Norton (1996) Solution structure of human neuropeptide Y. Journal of Biomolecular NMR 8, 379-390.
October 2016, Sutapa Ghosh, David Goodsellhttp://doi.org/10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2016_10